2.3. Hello World (part 2)

As of Linux 2.4, you can rename the init and cleanup functions of your modules; they no longer have to be called init_module() and cleanup_module() respectively. This is done with the module_init() and module_exit() macros. These macros are defined in linux/init.h. The only caveat is that your init and cleanup functions must be defined before calling the macros, otherwise you'll get compilation errors. Here's an example of this technique:

Example 2-3. hello-2.c

 *  hello-2.c - Demonstrating the module_init() and module_exit() macros.
 *  This is preferred over using init_module() and cleanup_module().
#include <linux/module.h>	/* Needed by all modules */
#include <linux/kernel.h>	/* Needed for KERN_INFO */
#include <linux/init.h>		/* Needed for the macros */

static int __init hello_2_init(void)
	printk(KERN_INFO "Hello, world 2\n");
	return 0;

static void __exit hello_2_exit(void)
	printk(KERN_INFO "Goodbye, world 2\n");


So now we have two real kernel modules under our belt. Adding another module is as simple as this:

Example 2-4. Makefile for both our modules

obj-m += hello-1.o
obj-m += hello-2.o

	make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) modules

	make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) clean

Now have a look at linux/drivers/char/Makefile for a real world example. As you can see, some things get hardwired into the kernel (obj-y) but where are all those obj-m gone? Those familiar with shell scripts will easily be able to spot them. For those not, the obj-$(CONFIG_FOO) entries you see everywhere expand into obj-y or obj-m, depending on whether the CONFIG_FOO variable has been set to y or m. While we are at it, those were exactly the kind of variables that you have set in the linux/.config file, the last time when you said make menuconfig or something like that.