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Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. Copyright ©19yy name of author

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items-whatever suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.



[Meta: This could use more entries, and a little polishing. Feel free to make suggestions.]

An enormous difficulty in networking is to remember what all the abbreviations and terms one encounters really mean. Here's a list of those used frequently throughout the guide, along with a short explanation.


Annotated Bibliography Books

The following is a list of books you might want to read to if you want to know more about some of the topics covered in the Networking Guide. It is not very complete or systematic, I just happen to have read them and find them quite useful. Any additions to, and enhancement of this list are welcome.

General Books on the Internet

Administration Issues

The Background

The following is a list of books that might be of interest to people who want to know more about how TCP/IP and its applications work, but don't want to read RFCs.

HOWTOs The following is an excerpt of the HOWTO-INDEX, version-2.0 (17-March 1994), written by Matt Welsh.

What are HOWTOs?

HOWTOs are short online documents which describe in detail a certain aspect of configuring or using the system. For example, there is the Installation HOWTO, which gives instructions on installing , and the Mail HOWTO, which describes how to set up and configure mail under . Other examples include the NET-2-HOWTO (previously the NET-2-FAQ) and the Printing HOWTO.

Information in HOWTOs is generally more detailed and in-depth than what can be squeezed into the FAQ. For this reason, the FAQ is being rewritten. A large amount of the information contained therein will be relegated to various HOWTO documents. The FAQ will be a shorter list of frequently asked questions about , covering small specific topics. Most of the ``useful'' information in the FAQ will now be covered in the HOWTOs.

HOWTOs are comprehensive documents--much like an FAQ but generally not in question-and-answer format. However, many HOWTOs contain an FAQ section at the end. For example, the NET-2-FAQ has been renamed to the NET-2-HOWTO, because it wasn't in question-and-answer format. However, you will see the NET-2-HOWTO named as the NET-2-FAQ in many places. The two docs are one and the same.

Where to get HOWTOs

HOWTOs can be retrieved via anonymous FTP from the following sites:

as well as the many mirror sites, which are listed in the META-FAQ (see below).

The Index, printed below, lists the currently available HOWTOs.

HOWTOs are also posted regularly to the newsgroups comp.os.linux and comp.os.linux.announce. In addition, a number of the HOWTOs will be cross-posted to news.answers. Therefore, you can find the HOWTOs on the news.answers archive site


The following HOWTOs are currently available.

Miscellaneous and Legalese

If you have questions, please feel free to mail The FAQ rewrite is being coordinated by Ian Jackson,, with help from others.

Unless otherwise stated, HOWTO documents are copyrighted by their respective authors. HOWTO documents may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in part, in any medium physical or electronic, without permission of the author. Translations and derivative works are similarly permitted without express permission. Commercial redistribution is allowed and encouraged; however, the author would like to be notified of any such distributions.

In short, we wish to promote dissemination of this information through as many channels as possible. However, we do wish to retain copyright on the HOWTO documents, and would like to be notified of any plans to redistribute the HOWTOs. If you have questions, please contact Matt Welsh, the HOWTO coordinator, at


The following is a list of RFCs mentioned throughout this book. All RFCs are available via anonymous FTP from, To obtain an RFC via email, send a message to, putting the request send RFC-number.TXT in the subject header line.


Next: About this document Up: The GNU General Public Previous: Terms and Conditions for

Andrew Anderson
Thu Mar 7 23:22:06 EST 1996